Core animation for mac os x and the iphone epub
Furthermore, in AppKit, controls usually hold a reference to one target and an action pair, whereas you can associate multiple target-action pairs with a control on iOS using the addTarget:action:forControlEvents: method.
Pdf Core Animation For Mac Os X And The Iphone: Creating Compelling Dynamic User Interfaces
The view system works very differently on the Mac, for historic reasons. On iOS, views were backed by Core Animation layers by default from the beginning. But AppKit predates Core Animation by decades. Therefore, the view system heavily relied on the CPU doing the work. By default, AppKit views are not backed by Core Animation layers; layer-backing support has been integrated into AppKit retroactively. AppKit differentiates between layer-backed and layer-hosting views, and layer backing can be turned on and off on a per-view-tree basis. In contrast to iOS, on the Mac you should treat the backing layers as an implementation detail.
This means you should not try to interact with the layers directly, as AppKit owns those layers. For example, on iOS you could simply say:. If you want to interact with the layer in such ways, then you have to go one step further. Instead, updateLayer will be called during the view update cycle, and this is where you can modify the layer.
You can use this, for example, to implement a very simple view with a uniform background color yes, NSView has no backgroundColor property :. The alternative to this would be to simply override the drawRect: method to draw the colored background. Since OS X This can be a good option if you know that you will not need to animate subviews individually.
All subviews that are implicitly layer-backed i. However, subviews that do have wantsLayer set to YES will still have their own backing layer and their drawRect: method will be called, no matter what wantsUpdateLayer returns. This resembles the behavior of non-layer-backed views, but it might be detrimental to animation performance if a drawing step is introduced for each frame of the animation. This way, you have control over when the layer contents need to be redrawn.
A frame change will not automatically trigger a redraw anymore; you are now responsible for triggering it by calling -setNeedsDisplay:. This allows you to specify how the existing layer content will be mapped into the layer as it is resized. There is a whole different option to work with Core Animation layers — called layer-hosting views.
In short, with a layer-hosting view, you can do with the layer and its sublayers whatever you want. The price you pay for this is that you cannot add any subviews to this view anymore. A layer-hosting view is a leaf node in the view tree. To create a layer-hosting view, you first have to assign a layer object to the layer property, and then set the wantsLayer to YES.
Note that the sequence of these steps is crucial:. In order to receive events for the mouse cursor entering or exiting the view or being moved within the view, you need to create a tracking area. A common pattern looks like this:. AppKit controls have been traditionally backed by NSCell subclasses. These cells should not be confused with table view cells or collection view cells in UIKit.
AppKit originally made the distinction between views and cells in order to save resources — views would delegate all their drawing to a more lightweight cell object that could be reused for all views of the same type. Check out the Cocoa Drawing Guide for more details. As a consequence of the differences in the view system discussed above, animations also work quite differently on the Mac.
If your views are not layer-backed, then naturally, animations will be a CPU-intensive process, as every step of the animation has to be drawn accordingly in the window-backing store. There are a few different ways you can trigger an animation on a view. First, you can use the animator proxy :. Behind the scenes, this will enable implicit animations on the backing layer, set the alpha value, and disable the implicit animations again. You can also wrap this into an animation context in order to get a completion handler callback:. In order to influence the duration and the timing function, we have to set these values on the animation context:.
AppKit for UIKit Developers · oninperna.tk
For more control over the animation, you can also use CAAnimation instances. For example:. Check out this article by Jonathan Willings for a description of how you can work around this limitation. All the things mentioned above apply to layer-backed views. NSImage is, in many ways, a more powerful class than UIImage , but this comes at the cost of increased complexity. AVFoundation lets you play video.
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Quartz forms the foundation of most things 2-D. Want to draw shapes, fill them with gradients and give them shadows? Compositing images on the screen? Those go through Core Graphics. Creating a PDF? Core Graphics again. CG as it is called by its friends is a fairly big API, covering the gamut from basic geometrical data structures such as points, sizes, vectors and rectangles and the calls to manipulate them, stuff that renders pixels into images or onto the screen, all the way to event handling.
That last one is weird.
Why is a graphics API dealing with user events? Like everything else, it has to do with History. And knowing a bit of history can explain why parts of CG behave like they do.
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Back in the mists of time the s, when Duran Duran was ascendent , graphics APIs were pretty primitive compared to what we have today. You could pick from a limited palette of colors, plot individual pixels, lay down lines and draw some basic shapes like rectangles and ellipses. QuickDraw on the Mac had a cool feature called regions that let you create arbitrarily-shaped areas and use them to paint through, clip, outline or hit-test.
But in general, APIs of the time were very pixel oriented. In , Apple introduced the LaserWriter, a printer that contained a microprocessor that was more powerful than the computer it was hooked up to, had 12 times the RAM, and cost twice as much.
This printer produced for the time incredibly beautiful output, due to a technology called PostScript. PostScript, as a technology, was geared for creating vector graphics mathematical descriptions of art rather than being pixel based.
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An interpreter for the PostScript language was embedded in the LaserWriter so when a program on the Mac wanted to print something, the program or a printer driver would generate program code that was downloaded into the printer and executed. Representing the page as a program was a very important design decision. This allowed the program to represent the contents of the page algorithmically, so the the device that executed the program would be able to draw the page at its highest possible resolution.
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For most printers at the time, this was dpi. For others, dpi. All from the same generated program. In addition to rendering pages, PostScript is Turing-complete, and can be treated as a general-purpose programming language. You could even write a web server.